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How The Diseases Are Organized

The diseases included in this book are organized according to type of disease (e.g., rusts, cankers, mistletoes) or the part of the tree that is affected (e.g., heart rots, root diseases). Within these groupings, diseases are identified by their common name, as recognized by the Western International Forest Disease Work Conference in 1984 (Hawksworth et al. 1985). The latin name of the disease-causing agent is listed, along with older names by which the organism was previously known. We have recognized the latin names and authorities in the American Phytopathological Society publication Fungi on plants and plant products in the United States (Farr et al., 1989).

The list of hosts affected by a particular disease comes from two sources: the Canadian Forestry Service host-fungus index that lists fungi collected in British Columbia since 1889, and Farr et al. (1989), which lists hosts for other parts of North America. Where a disease occurs mainly on one host, but has also been reported on other hosts, the most important host(s) is printed in bold-face type. A listing of common and latin names of host plants follows the disease descriptions. Disease distributions were obtained from CFS Forest Insect and Disease Survey collection records (Infobase) or through personal communication with regional experts. The disease signs and symptoms that can be seen with the naked eye or with the aid of a low power (10X) hand lens are described. In addition, microscopic characteristics of the fungal fruiting bodies, spores, and fungal growth in culture are listed. Information included in this section was drawn from Nobles (1948), Ziller (1974), Stalpers (1978), Funk (1985), and Gilbertson and Ryvarden (1986, 1987). Important references are provided for each disease.

Following the disease descriptions are the common and latin names of all host plants listed in the descriptions. Also included is a glossary which defines scientific terms and less commonly used words. General references used extensively throughout the book are included in a separate section.

One of the most valuable sections in an identification guide is the index. Three indices are included in this book. The first, the host index, lists organisms that cause disease by host and affected plant part. Those listed in bold-face are those which we feel are the most common organisms for each host species. Hosts included in this index are restricted to the important commercial tree species in British Columbia.

The second index is a list of selected disease organisms grouped by distinctive signs or symptoms. This is valuable in narrowing down the causal agent when a prominent sign or symptom is present.

The final index, the general index, lists all diseases and disease-causing organisms by common name, genus, species, and where appropriate, previously used latin names.